Security Techniques

The Evolution of Protected Processes Part 1: Pass

The Evolution of Protected Processes Part 1: Pass: The Evolution of Protected Processes Part 1: Pass-the-Hash Mitigations in Windows 8.1

It was more than six years ago that I first posted on the concept of protected processes, making my opinion of this poorly thought-out DRM scheme clear in the title alone: “Why Protected Processes Are A Bad Idea”. It appears that Microsoft took a long, hard look at the mechanism (granted, an impenetrable user-mode process can have interesting security benefits — if we can get DRM out of the picture), creating a new class of process yet again: the Protected Process Light, sometimes abbreviated PPL in the kernel.

Unlike its “heavy” brother, the protected process light actually serves as a type of security boundary, bringing in three useful mitigations and security enhancements to the Windows platform. Over the next three or four blog posts, we’ll see how each of these enhancements is implemented, starting this week with Pass-the-Hash (PTH) Mitigation.

We’ll talk about LSASS’ role in the Windows security model, followed by the technical details behind the new PPL model. And since it’s hard to cover any new security advancement without delving in at least a few other inter-related internals areas, we’ll also talk a little bit about Secure Boot and protected variables. Perhaps most importantly, we’ll also see how to actually enable the PtH mitigation, as it is currently disabled by default on non-RT Windows versions.